红砖地表材质制作流程 | Substance Designer
本文主要阐述了在制作砖彻地表材质过程中的主要流程分解，其中包括一些材质细节的简单概述，更多细节可参见MACHI发布在ABOUTCG官网的《Substance Designer 实战案例解密》课程。
Introduction | 简介
Hello. My name is SungJun Kang. I was born in South Korea, and I am currently working on Environment Art. I have worked on various online game projects for both PC and mobile, we still do not have any titles released from the company yet. This makes me really sad. When I was in college, I majored product design. At the same time, I was interested in 3D Art, so I attended a CG school nearby for almost a year. I continued to study through Youtube and books even after I graduated from the college. Now, I am studying online from the learning materials released from the organization named “BALCHAGI”, which is a company located in California. The company, based on many years of experience and extensive know-how, specializes educating both domestic and foreign CG/IT developers in movie/game industry.
大家好，我是SungJun Kang，出生于South Korea，目前从事场景艺术工作。无论是PC端还是移动端的在线游戏项目，我都有参与制作过。在读大学的时候，我主修的是产品设计，当时，我对3D艺术产生了浓烈的兴趣，所以就在附近的CG学校学习了将近一年。大学毕业之后，也还是继续通过Youtube和书籍进行学习。现在，我在一家名为“BALCHAGI”的加利福尼亚公司在线学习材质制作。这是一家凭借多年的经验和技术专长，为国内外电影/游戏行业的CG/IT开发者提供专业的培训的公司。
When I first saw the video about Substance Designer on YouTube, it was shocking. I realized that Substance Designer will be mainly used in the future CG future, so I decided to dig deeper into the subject. I tried to search on YouTube first. However, the language barriers were high. It was possible for me to follow, but it was difficult to fully understand the concept. One day, I heard that Allegorithmic Korea branch was conducting offline education. I decided to attend the class and I quickly fell in love with Substance Designer. My favorite thing with the ability to create Procedural Textures. The best thing about this is that you can create high-quality PBR textures and make changes at any time during or even after your work hours.
Approach | 方法
When I first started this work, I thought I wanted to look at the floor on the roof of the company and make it into Substance Designer. So I took a picture of the roof and started collecting similar images. I collected images of mosses and dirt to refer to the shapes and colors of stones. Observing and classifying images of stone, dirt, leaves, leaves, and moss was the beginning of the new adventure.
Stones | 石头
I have focused on creating large and small images using Tile Random, Distance, and Edge Detect to create various types of stones. The figures are adjusted so that large and medium-sized stones are properly distributed. The spacing between stones has also been spaced precisely and evenly in Levels. If the shape of the stone comes out to your liking, then you can form a natural-looking stone by distorting the shape little by little.
我使用Tile Random、 Distance和Edge Detect创建各种各样的石头。调整数字，使大中型的石头可以适当分布。石头之间的间距也会精确且均匀的分布在Levels上。如果石头的形状是你所喜欢的，你就可以一点、一点的修改使其变得更加自然。
At first, stones are shrunk with a touch of small details later. The method of Tile Random used here is to create a heightmap with sharp and angled shapes and used as intensity input of the directional warp. This creates a smooth but uneven shape that looks half angular or broken. The next is the usage of slope blur greyscale with smaller noise to increase the details of the outer appearance. By doing so, stones take the natural-looking appearance as if they were roughed up by external forces.
首先，石头会随着一些小细节的添加而缩小。这里使用的Tile Random的方法是为了创建有锋利角度形状的高度贴图，并作为方向扭曲的强度输入。这样可以形成平滑但不均匀的形状，看起来像有一半的角或破碎掉一块的样子。接下来使用较小噪点的slope blur greyscale增加外观细节。通过这样做，石头看起来会更加的自然，像是被外力碾压过了似的。
When the overall shape of the stone is finished, it will be finished by adding the angular curvature and texture of the stone surface and cracks.
Creating a slight angular texture of the stone surface also creates a new Tile Random. It produces a large and small amounts of Paraboloid, which is then used to detail the Directional warp and Clouds2. This height map blends with the stone shape you created earlier. This option with Subtract and opacity adjustment reveals the angular shape of the stone surface. Then use Dirt, Gaussian Spot, and Clouds to make large and small holes in the surface. At this time, small holes and large holes must be blended in evenly in order to make the material look more natural.
Finally, it’s time to put Crack on the finished stone. When you are done with Perlin noise and BnW Spots 2, the work on the largest stone ends by blending the stones created earlier.
最后，是时候将Crack放在最终完成的石头上了。当你完成Perlin噪点和 BnW Spots 2时，在最大的石头上所做的工作，都是通过混合之前所创建的石头而完成结束的。
The main idea of the procedure is not to add too many details while maintaining the good quality of the work.
Moss | 苔藓
I looked at the reference and found that the shape of the moss was very small, and what was important was how to stack it all together rather than one by one. It is also important to work with the color to naturally match the color of stones and surroundings. Because the stone is the main point the work, the moss was created as if it is the supporting role the environment.
After creating a leaf. I placed it in several directions between soil and stone with Tile Sampler to form a shape. At this time, I used a Mask map that blended the AO map and Moisture Noise in order to scatter more irregularly and naturally. As a result, leaves were placed on the stones and put in between the gaps, creating a natural effect.
创建一片叶子之后，我用Tile Sampler将其放在土壤与石头之间几个不同的方向上形成一个形状。同时，使用了混合AO贴图和Moisture Noise的Mask贴图，以便分散的更加不规则和自然。最终，叶子被放入石头的间隙之间，产生了自然效果。
Water | 水
I used a very simple method to work on the water. I added gray to the completed heightmap as a Uniform Color, darkening the color only in the part where the water was blended, and making the reflection happen by adjusting the Roughness map. What matters most is that the orientation of the light and the HDRI image must be well coordinated in order for the UE4 to stand out from the water. Lighting is a very important factor when improving the quality of the textures. The value of all objects is defined by their light, especially in CG.
Optimization | 优化
I have not had a chance to use Designer for game projects yet. It’s a very sad thing. So I extracted BaseColor map, Normal map, Roughness map, Heightmap and Ambient Occlusion map in Substance Designer and imported them into UE4. And to achieve better results, I set up Lighting so that the texture composing a small scene would stand out. To hide the edges of the trees with shadows and to make the bottom of the scene stand out, I implemented IBL (Image Based Lighting) in combination with Sun Light, Sky Light, and HDRI Image. I changed the direction of sunlight, changed the timezone, made some changes, and created a finished image.
对于没有机会将Designer用于游戏项目中，是一件令人悲伤的事情。因此，我在Substance Designer中提取BaseColor贴图、 Normal 贴图Roughness贴图、Height贴图和Ambient Occlusion贴图，并将它们导入到UE4中。为了获得更好的效果，我设置了Lighting，用贴图构建一个小的场景并突出。为了隐藏树的边缘与阴影，并使底部的场景突出，我将IBL（Image Based Lighting）与Sun Light、 Sky Light和HDRI图像相结合。我改变了阳光的方向，改变了时区并做了一些其它改变，创建了完整的图像。